Depression and Arousal
The comparison of the Arousal Index (AI) with VIGALL as a diagnostic tool in depression patients and healthy controls during resting-state EEG

In this study, we assessed the utility of two EEG metrics measuring brain arousal (a dimension of functional brain states comprising different levels of wakefulness and sleep) including the newly developed Arousal-Index (AI) (developed by Andreas Müller and researchers at the Brain and Trauma Stiftung) and the meanwhile established VIGALL-index in depressive patients and healthy controls.

Resting-state EEG of 64 patients and 46 healthy controls obtained in the eye-closed condition was analyzed by both AI and VIGALL. Additionally, the correlation between the two measures was calculated. It was found that: (i) patients with depression disorder showed a significantly higher AI level when compared to healthy controls. Concerning this finding,  our results extend the knowledge that depression has a significant correlation with brain arousal and that generally depressed patients demonstrate a higher level of arousal. (ii) depressed patients demonstrated a significantly decreased mean VIGALL as assessed by VIGALL compared to healthy controls; (iii) there was a significant negative correlation between AI and the VIGALL metric in both groups; (iv) the AI metric obtained for both hemispheres were highly correlated for both groups suggesting a strong bilateral involvement of arousal control, and (v) using the AI, we were able to distinguish two subgroups of depressive patients, one with low AI and one with high AI measures. the treatment of a depressed patient with high arousal would be very different than a patient with low arousal.

Vigall and Arousal Index show a high correlation (0.8)

In conclusion, our results provided unique evidence for the sensitivity of the AI score as a potential diagnostic tool for arousal measurement in depression disorder. Also, the results showed that depressive patients can be separated in subgroups based on the EEG marker and their medication history. This highlights the need for AI as an accurate diagnostic tool for arousal measurement in depression disorder. The depression and arousal project is currently being going under some for final editions by the authors and it will be sent for publication reviews afterwards.


Treatment-relevant research in ADHS
Implementation of application-oriented research in ADHD in children as well as in adolescents and adults.

annual report 2019
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Arousal-marker for inner restlessness

Biomarkers and diagnostics
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Arousal a marker for inner restlessness
Arousal modulates thoughts, behaviour and feelings

Arousal a marker for inner restlessness
Generalized arousal as a measure modulating behavior, emotions and cognitions

Arousal – Arousalmodulation – current operating status
What matters is activation over time

US Conference: Trauma -Evolution, Diagnosis and Treatment
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Holistic diagnostics in ADHD
Brain functions as part of holistic diagnostics

Course: Biomarkers in practice
Brain functions as an integrative component of psychological-psychological diagnostics

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Diagnostics and therapy of ADHS in children and adults
Introductory course in biomarker-oriented diagnostics

»Innovation goes public«
Concepts must reach recipients

Hypersensitivity and Arousal
Meaningful in the diagnose of ADHD, depression, stress and Anxiety.